The Commemorative War Cross: sometimes called the Dutch War Cross. This bronze cross was created on 16 March 1944. Its central obverse medallion shows Queen Wilhelmina surrounded by the text "VOOR KRIJGSVERRICHTINGEN" (For war operations). The design stems from the earlier 1869 Expedition Cross and the reverse is plain. It was awarded for participation in general war operations and/or specific war actions which were recognized by small-lettered bars on the ribbon. In total 12 such bars were instituted, five for general operations and seven for specific actions. Several of the latter can be worn on one medal but only one bar for general operations is allowed per recipient.