Instituted in 1918 by King George V but discontinued in 1993. Awarded to non-commissioned officers and men of the Air Force for 'an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty performed whilst flying in active operations against the enemy'. As with the Distinguished Flying Cross, this was altered in 1932 to read 'for exceptional valour, courage or devotion to duty whist flying in active operations against the enemy'. The award carries the post-nominal DFM. During World War II the Medal was extended to the Navy and Army. It was discontinued in 1993 when the DFC was extended to all ranks. The ribbon was originally of fine violet and white horizontal stripes but his was altered in 1919 to have stripes in the same width running at 45 degrees, downwards from left to right. The last award of the DFM to an Australian was in 1971. In all 436 have been won by Australians plus two first Bars. All 436 were won by members of the Royal Australian Air Force.