Military Cross (MC)
Instituted in December 1914 by King George V and originally intended for lower ranking Army officers (Captain or less) and Warrant Officers for 'distinguished and meritorious services'. The award carries the post-nominal MC. In 1916 the award was extended to similar ranks of the Navy and Air Force but only for World War 1. Subsequently in 1931 the Cross was extended to lower ranked Air Force officers for actions on the ground. In 1920 the reason for the award was changed to be for 'distinguished services in action'. In 1953 the ceiling rank for availability was extended to Majors and to all ranks in 1993 with the discontinuation of the other ranks counter part the Military Medal. The ribbon is of three equal stripes of white, rich purple and white. Australians figure prominently among recipients, particularly from World War 1, with 2,403 awards, 170 first Bars and four second Bars. In total between 1901 and 1972, Australians were awarded 2,930 Military Crosses, with 188 first Bars and four second Bars.